* ITB JOURNAL OF VISUAL ART AND DESIGN *

1. ITB Journal of Visual Art and Design, ISSN 1978-3078, Vol.1, No.2, August 2007

a. Desain Mebel Denmark dalam Konteks Perkembangan Desain Kontemporer Skandinavia
Jamaludin*, Imam Buchori** dan Imam Santosa** *Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain ITENAS
** Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain ITB

Abstract. Denmark ‘s strategic geographical position between Continental Europa and Scandinavian region makes them play a role as a bridge between both regions, including in the development of modern design. The development of Scandinavian furniture design influence by proto-modern design movement in Europe such as Art and Craft Movement, De Stijl, Vienna School , Deutsche Werkbund and also Bahaus. The outher influences were accepted with critical understanding and blended with local character to produce a new design form known as Modern Scandinavia. Historically, the education of modern furniture design in Denmark and Other Scandinavian countries pioneered by Kaare Klint (1888-1954) in the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Art, School of Architecture in Copenhagen . It was for the very first time, Klint arranged a systematic and comprehensive study about function, structure and furniture dimension based on British classics chair design. He also studied measurement of furniture based on the necessity of objects, which later known as Ergonomic. Klint’s approach resulted in a funtional aspect that lead to organic abstraction form by using natural wood as opposed to Bauhaus from concept that tented to use geometric abstraction form by using chrome-plated metal. Having described its historical roots, the study analyzed the characteristic of Denmark furniture design development that referring to (a) the values of craftsmanship, which is applied into modern design and manufacture process; (b) the commitment to natural material, which is used in furniture design, and (c) social idealism that applied in the society. Danish furniture designers’ approach into modern design starts by reductionism that simplifies classical forms into basic-structural forms, and apply organic abstraction as opposed to Bauhaus’s geometric abstraction.
Keywords : furniture; design development; Denmark

b. Unsur Tasawuf dalam Perupaan Wayang Kulit Purwa Cirebon dan Surakarta
Moh. Isa Pramana*, Yustiono* & Wiyoso Yudoseputro**
*Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain ITB **Fakultas Senirupa IKJ-Jakarta

Abstract. Wayang Kulit Purwa-based on Indian epics and original Javanese myths-is considered as the media link between the Hindi-Buddhism era (Kabudan) and the Islamic era (Kewalen) of the Indonesian traditional arts. It is assumed that wayang kulit holds a relationship role to these two eras. The effort to understand this relationship can only be explained through Sufism that was practiced by the Nine Apostles of Java (Wali Sanga) who has contributed a great deal to the Wayang Kulit Purwa adaptations. It is obvious that there are Sufistic meanings in the visualizations of the figure in Wayang Kulit Purwa as shown by differences of dimensions and intensities in its manifestations, even with the same local area (gagrak). Differences are range from visual details among different figure appearances of the similar character, called wanda, to the different figure appearances of different characters. This is particularly more obvious in the differences between the gagrak of Cirebon and Surakarta . Ths study focuses on the analysis of various characters figures such Bima, Mintaraga, Semar, Cakil, Rahwana, Duryudhana and Dursasana from both gagraks of wayang kulit. The Cirebon gagrak shows a Sufistic understanding which looks to the medium not in a serious matter, being more straight forward, more egalitarian and more focused. On the other hand, Surakarta gagrak shows a Javanese Sufistic understanding that put the importance of visualizing elegance and grace-ness in manners and spirituality, as a proof of harmony between the world of physique and spirituality.
Keywords: Sufism; visualizations; wayang kulit purwa

c. Desain Kebaya Sunda Abad Ke-20 Studi Kasus di Bandung Tahun 1910-1980
Irma Russanti
Jurusan Tata Busana, Universitas Negeri Surabaya

Abstract . The female traditional outfits of Sunda are varied according to geography, history, social life, economy, and cultural transformations that have taken place for centuries. The similarity in both cultures and historical background had resulted in the similarity on structural design of the various female outfits in this area. This study focuses to identify various styles of kebaya Sunda that shared similarity of features. The word Sunda itself was used as a collective term, and apparently had a relation with the original place and culture of the kebaya wearers – female Sundanese. Given wide geographical area and historical richness of Sunda, the study focuses on the area of Bandung during the period of 1910-1980. The study employed a descriptive analysis that was based on the historical approach, in an attempt to describe the cultural transformation of kebaya as the traditional female outfit that had taken place in Sunda area. To identify design features of kebaya Sunda, the study employed both synchronic and diachronic approaches. To analyze the effect of modernization toward aesthetical shift and changes of design in kebaya Sunda during 1910-1980, the study employed aesthetical approach. In addition, the study also looks into the influence of social stratification upon the classification of the designs in kebaya Sunda. Results suggest that: (I) Design features of the kebaya Sunda had accumulated into five different styles (V neckline, wide samleh, small samleh, cowak, and triangle bef), (2) The modern education and the changes of thinking pattern, trend mode and textile, and the technological development of pattern making had greatly influenced the aesthetical shift of the kebaya Sunda design, thus greatly affecting their design changes (sleeve shape, collars, necklines, proportions, textures, silhouettes, constructions, and decoration varieties, (3) The influence of the social stratification to the design classification of kebaya Sunda in Bandung in 1941 was evident, when kebaya menak and kebaya cacah were created. Their significant differences appear in shapes, lines, silhouettes, proportions, textures, decoration varieties, details, and trimmings. The style of kebaya menak was predominantly used by all styles of the kebaya Sunda whereas kebaya cacah tended to use small samleh style.
Keywords: sincronic-diacronic approach; kebaya Sunda; traditional outfit.

d. Persoalan Kesetaraan Gender dalam Karya Seni Rupa Kontemporer Indonesia
Ira Adriati Winarno
Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain-ITB

Abstrak. Art work serves not only for personal expression but also have social function. It is quite obvious as some Indonesian women artists use their art works to express gender equality issues. Their ideas are contributing greatly to the development of contemporary visual art in Indonesia . These women artists express issues of gender that whether personally experienced by them or other women in general, using the expressive style of surrealism, expressionism, and naturalism. Certainly, their art works show good aesthetics values, supported by excellent skills and technical abilities. Most of their art works not only provide excellent visualizations but also send strong messages on gender equality issues. Their works, as explained in this study, provide a common ground to increase public awareness for the importance of gender equality issues in Indonesia .
Keywords: women artists; gender equality; art works

e. Makna Simbolis pada Unsur Visual Kostum Tari Topeng Babakan Cirebon Keni Arja di Desa Slangit
Ayoeningsih Dyah
Jurusan Seni Rupa, Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia-Bandung

Abstract. Mask dance is one of the traditional performing arts that has grown and developed ever since the Hindu period. At the beginning, this artistic performance serves as the medium in the ceremonial tradition related to the ritual of elderly summon, for giving blessings and provide salvations. In the Islam period, the performance was used by Sunan Gunung Djati as a media of religious endeavor to show the phase in human’s beliefe. In this special type of performance, the dancer wears five character masks: Panji, Pamindo, Rumyang, Patih and KIana, along with their equipments, such as costumes, clothes, and headdress called sobrah. Although it looks visually simple, its provide lots of symbolical values that are related to the growing period of arts, where major philosophies from the two grand religions (Hindu and Islam) collided. It is also related to the concept of Mandala, a primordial discourse ofIndonesian society. This study focuses in analyzing the symbolic meaning of visual elements from the babakan dance’s costume, which was used by Keni Arja in the year of 2006. It is found that inside Keni Arja’s costume there are full varieties of forms, motives, and colors. For instance, the figure of Panji, Pamindo, Rumyang, and Patih wear a tie; however KIana wears ombyok to cover the chest. Patih’s figure is no longer using sobrah as headdress, instead it uses peci-bendo and glasses. Results of analysis indicate that there are several changes on the visual elements inside mask-dance costume, especially in the element of form among ornament of sobrah, the material of sobrah, the costume colors of every character, and the motive of kain. Interestingly, Keni Arja keeps using some traditional elements, such as headdress (called sobrah) and a cloth piece to cover below. This indicates that traditional dancer still obeys the old form, which refers to the early birth of this artistic performance, as a way to keep magical values of the performing arts.
Keywords: mask dance; visual element; symbolic meaning.

f. Narasi-Narasi Tentang Tubuh dalam Seni Rupa Kontemporer Indonesia Studi atas Karya-Karya Agus Suwage, Arahmaiani, Ivan Sagita, dan IGAK Murniasih
Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain ITB

Abstract. This paper eIlaborates how human body is visualized in Indonesian contemporary art works, especiaIly in the works of Agus Suwage, Arahmani, Ivan Sagita, and IGAK Murniasih. In their works, human body becomes the base of epistemological creation. Their different points of view and vocalizations resulted in the various themes of human body. Human body becomes fuIl of social, political, psychological, philoshopical, empirical, and cultural values.
Keywords: contemporary visual arts; human body.

g. Mengamati Aspek-Aspek Visual Pertunjukan Tari Sebagai Pengayaan Kajian Senirupa
Anis Sujana
Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia – Bandung

Abstract.According to the medium, arts can be classified into the art of visual, the art of hearing, and the art of words. Those included in the art of visual are dance and fine art, in the art of hearing is music and in the art of words is poetry. This paper describes one of the art of the visual–dance, which use human body and its movement as a medium of expression. Fact shows that a dance performance exists due to the involvement of supporting elements such as visual disposition. Certain dances limit themselves to the supporting elements of costumes, make-up, property (tools) and musical instruments; others equip with stages, decorations, and lightings. Traditional dances-in particular-extensively equip themselves with supporting elements to show its characteristics. Thus, since dance requires the supporting element of visuals, it is reasonable to observe it as similar to the way we observe the object of fine art. The scope of observation for the supporting elements of dance performance may cover the whole visual events or just merely one of the scenes. Therefore, a contextual knowledge of both inside and outside can be fully grasped to form the background of the dance performance.
Keywords: performance art; dancing; visual art.

h. Kajian Terapan Eko-Interior pada Bangunan Berwawasan Lingkungan
Rumah Dr. Heinz Frick di Semarang; Kantor PPLH di Mojokerto; Perkantoran Graha Wonokoyo di Surabaya
Yusita Kusumarini*, Agus Sachari** & Budi Isdianto **
*Jurusan Desain Interior, Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain, Universitas Kristen Petra **Fakultas Seni Rupa dan Desain, ITB

Abstract. The intertwined influence of both local and global phenomena toward the disturbance of environment requires immediate awareness of all; including also designers, architects, and building contractors. Yet, it is hardly to find concrete application in the field of interior design that embeds ecological approach on buildings, especially for the case of Indonesia . To address the issue, this study looks into several buildings in Java that have applied ecologicalĀ­approach, a balanced-way between human, space, and environment. Having the purpose to investigate and to compare applied ecological-approaches of each building, the results are aimed to provide applicable-examples and/or a referential model for ecological building in Indonesia . Henry HCM Christiaans’s cyclical-applied research was adopted as a method for the study, which consists of practical problem, diagnosis, plan, intervention, and evaluation. The compared results of each selected building and their examples of environmental approach are presented and discussed.
Keywords: applied ecological approach; eco-interior; human-space-environment

i. Muatan Ideologi IkIan Global Pada Tayangan Media Televisi di Indonesia
Agung Eko Budiwaspada
Fakultas Senirupa dan Desain ITB

Abstract. This study tries to uncover the existence of ideological values that are present in the global advertisement in Indonesia , by focusing on how these ideological values are present in the communication ideas of global advertisements. It is aimed to respond to the whole factual problem using a series of analysis. At fust, the meaningful expression of objects are identified, especially those that are related to the thoughts, perceptions, concepts, and objectives of global expressions in the advertisements. The interpretation norm of semiotic approach was employed to identify the ideological values of those global advertisements in Indonesia . Results indicate that global advertisements in Indonesia are loaded with ideological values. It is reflected in the appearances of those advertisements, including the swinging values of consumerism, cultural imperialism, stereotyping global lifestyles, perfectionism, and decontextualism. Although these embedded values are-somewhat-contradicting Indonesian values, they may emerge through dis-culturation, inculturation, and acculturation . processes as there are no adequate efforts to make the public aware. This may lead to a big sacrifice that we all have to endure, and that is the emergence of high-cost culture.
Keywords: ideology; global advertisement; semiotics.